Through this series of evaluations, researchers discovered that targeted instruction could be successful when delivered by tutors, volunteers, and government teachers, both in-school and out-of-school. Through this process, key programme components have been identified and strengthened. A recent paper by Banerjee et al 14  identifies two particularly strong models which work well at scale.

  • Tutor- or volunteer-led learning TaRL camps held for periodic bursts of time were effective in Uttar Pradesh, India, in a location with relatively weak government support structures. This model includes local instructors leading TaRL activities for forty days with supplementary support in summer camps.
  • Government teacher-led TaRL instruction throughout the school year was effective in Haryana, India, a state with relatively strong government systems. This intervention included a dedicated time for TaRL during the school day and support for teachers through strong mentoring and monitoring.
Impact of programmes targeting instruction to the level of the child
In addition to the extensive evidence from India, rigorous evaluations from Ghana and Kenya have also found that creating homogenous learning level groups allows instructors to target instruction and help children learn. In addition, evaluations on programmes involving adaptive computer-assisted learning, which adjusts to children’s current learning levels, and using targeted tutoring, show positive outcomes.
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